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什么是长江(2)-金沙南流

????文牧行星山水诗说:沉睡无聊靠在舵楼上,曲塘西望路长。长江的巨浪引来了眼泪,西风一夜之间变白了。诗,书回到生活。一个世纪前,中国近代地质学的奠基人丁文江在徐霞客云南旅游路线上考察了金沙江。他带着徐霞客的旅行笔记。每天,他都要读徐霞客的游记,并证明他所听到的。在元谋桓州乡,他爬得很高,俯视着龙川河和金沙江的交汇处,发现“龙川河目前的水量很小,不能冲出峻宁平川这样宽广的山谷。很明显,在地质历史上,均平川并不是龙川河独特的河谷。我的看法是,鸭龙江发源于江边,原是一条由北向南的大河,与龙川河、红河相连。本文的核心科学思想是丁文江认为金沙江曾经沿着龙川河和红河流入大海。这是金沙江“南流夺”理论的雏形,学术界对其进行了一个世纪的广泛研究和争论。这可以说是研究长江百年历史的开拓性工作。长江“第一湾”的形成:金沙江“夺”与“不夺”之战,从青藏高原向南延伸至云南丽江石鼓镇,突然转向东北,形成着名的长江“第一湾”。长江东流的第一个关键点是长江“第一湾”的形成,它通向金沙江(乃至整个长江)的东流。究其原因,学术界普遍称之为“夺论”,即下游金沙江夺上河谷。石鼓以南的白汉昌至剑川线是一条宽阔的山谷,海拔略高于现在的石鼓河床。“扣押论”认为,剑川流域发展起来的小规模内陆水系不能形成这样一个高、深、宽的河谷,所以剑川流域是古河流遗留下来的一个河谷,即曾经向南流动的古金沙河谷。“缉拿论”进一步推测,古金沙江段曾向西流淌,与石鼓下的古金沙江和南部的古金沙江汇合,并夺取剑川流域。晚更新世,古金沙江被长江中下游截留,形成风口,截留弯道。当然,“攻占论”也认为石鼓并不是金沙江唯一的攻占弯,雅龙江可能通过龙川江以南流入大海。何浩生等。(1989)强烈质疑金沙江扣押的观点,指出洪文白汉场-剑川流域所谓的古金沙江阶地实际上是一个由盆地断裂引起的阶地断块台地,其上的沉积物大多靠近源坡沉积,与大型河流无关。这一结论在剑川盆地的钻井和地层研究中得到了进一步的证实。由此可见,剑川盆地实际上是一个小的交错盆地,没有大的流出水系,长江第一湾在传统地貌意义上不是“捕捉弯”,其形成时间不在更新世。剑川盆地“古金沙江”南流的地质证据否定了长江“第一湾”形成的“捕获”。这并不意味着该地区没有古水系,也不意味着古水系没有改变或重组。分布在青藏高原东南缘的新近纪盆地正是该地区广泛发育的古河流的记录。对石鼓及其周边地区进行了系统的区域地质调查。发现新生代沉积地层分布广泛。这些矿床基本上勾勒出了古剑川盆地(与目前剑川盆地的地貌不同)。新生代沉积相可分为两大体系:下部包相寺组,主要由深红色砾岩和砂岩组成。砾岩磨圆度差,主要由石灰岩组成,分布于盆地边缘。它是盆地发育早期的近源冲洪积物。

wen mu xing xing shan shui shi shuo: chen shui wu liao kao zai duo lou shang, qu tang xi wang lu chang. chang jiang de ju lang yin lai le yan lei, xi feng yi ye zhi jian bian bai le. shi, shu hui dao sheng huo. yi ge shi ji qian, zhong guo jin dai di zhi xue de dian ji ren ding wen jiang zai xu xia ke yun nan lv you lu xian shang kao cha le jin sha jiang. ta dai zhe xu xia ke de lv xing bi ji. mei tian, ta dou yao du xu xia ke de you ji, bing zheng ming ta suo ting dao de. zai yuan mou huan zhou xiang, ta pa de hen gao, fu shi zhe long chuan he he jin sha jiang de jiao hui chu, fa xian" long chuan he mu qian de shui liang hen xiao, bu neng chong chu jun ning ping chuan zhe yang kuan guang de shan gu. hen ming xian, zai di zhi li shi shang, jun ping chuan bing bu shi long chuan he du te de he gu. wo de kan fa shi, ya long jiang fa yuan yu jiang bian, yuan shi yi tiao you bei xiang nan de da he, yu long chuan he hong he xiang lian. ben wen de he xin ke xue si xiang shi ding wen jiang ren wei jin sha jiang ceng jing yan zhe long chuan he he hong he liu ru da hai. zhe shi jin sha jiang" nan liu duo" li lun de chu xing, xue shu jie dui qi jin xing le yi ge shi ji de guang fan yan jiu he zheng lun. zhe ke yi shuo shi yan jiu chang jiang bai nian li shi de kai tuo xing gong zuo. chang jiang" di yi wan" de xing cheng: jin sha jiang" duo" yu" bu duo" zhi zhan, cong qing zang gao yuan xiang nan yan shen zhi yun nan li jiang shi gu zhen, tu ran zhuan xiang dong bei, xing cheng zhu ming de chang jiang" di yi wan". chang jiang dong liu de di yi ge guan jian dian shi chang jiang" di yi wan" de xing cheng, ta tong xiang jin sha jiang nai zhi zheng ge chang jiang de dong liu. jiu qi yuan yin, xue shu jie pu bian cheng zhi wei" duo lun", ji xia you jin sha jiang duo shang he gu. shi gu yi nan de bai han chang zhi jian chuan xian shi yi tiao kuan kuo de shan gu, hai ba lue gao yu xian zai de shi gu he chuang." kou ya lun" ren wei, jian chuan liu yu fa zhan qi lai de xiao gui mo nei lu shui xi bu neng xing cheng zhe yang yi ge gao shen kuan de he gu, suo yi jian chuan liu yu shi gu he liu yi liu xia lai de yi ge he gu, ji ceng jing xiang nan liu dong de gu jin sha he gu." ji na lun" jin yi bu tui ce, gu jin sha jiang duan ceng xiang xi liu tang, yu shi gu xia de gu jin sha jiang he nan bu de gu jin sha jiang hui he, bing duo qu jian chuan liu yu. wan geng xin shi, gu jin sha jiang bei chang jiang zhong xia you jie liu, xing cheng feng kou, jie liu wan dao. dang ran," gong zhan lun" ye ren wei shi gu bing bu shi jin sha jiang wei yi de gong zhan wan, ya long jiang ke neng tong guo long chuan jiang yi nan liu ru da hai. he hao sheng deng. 1989 qiang lie zhi yi jin sha jiang kou ya de guan dian, zhi chu hong wen bai han chang jian chuan liu yu suo wei de gu jin sha jiang jie di shi ji shang shi yi ge you pen di duan lie yin qi de jie di duan kuai tai di, qi shang de chen ji wu da duo kao jin yuan po chen ji, yu da xing he liu wu guan. zhe yi jie lun zai jian chuan pen di de zuan jing he di ceng yan jiu zhong de dao le jin yi bu di zheng shi. you ci ke jian, jian chuan pen di shi ji shang shi yi ge xiao de jiao cuo pen di, mei you da de liu chu shui xi, chang jiang di yi wan zai chuan tong di mao yi yi shang bu shi" bu zhuo wan", qi xing cheng shi jian bu zai geng xin shi. jian chuan pen di" gu jin sha jiang" nan liu de di zhi zheng ju fou ding le chang jiang" di yi wan" xing cheng de" bu huo". zhe bing bu yi wei zhe gai di qu mei you gu shui xi, ye bu yi wei zhe gu shui xi mei you gai bian huo chong zu. fen bu zai qing zang gao yuan dong nan yuan de xin jin ji pen di zheng shi gai di qu guang fan fa yu de gu he liu de ji lu. dui shi gu ji qi zhou bian di qu jin xing le xi tong de qu yu di zhi diao cha. fa xian xin sheng dai chen ji di ceng fen bu guang fan. zhei xie kuang chuang ji ben shang gou le chu le gu jian chuan pen di yu mu qian jian chuan pen di de di mao bu tong. xin sheng dai chen ji xiang ke fen wei liang da ti xi: xia bu bao xiang si zu, zhu yao you shen hong se li yan he sha yan zu cheng. li yan mo yuan du cha, zhu yao you shi hui yan zu cheng, fen bu yu pen di bian yuan. ta shi pen di fa yu zao qi de jin yuan chong hong ji wu.

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